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What are the charges on CF® dyes?

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Most CF® dyes carry 1-2 negative charges while a few cyanine-based near-IR CF® dyes carry 3-4 negative charges. However, the more negatively charged CF® dyes comprise unique structural features that shield the negative charges such that the biomolecules (such as antibodies) the dyes label do not lose specificity due to the excessive negative charges.

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