PMAxx™ dye is a DNA modifier used for viability PCR, invented by scientists at Biotium. PMAxx™ is a new and improved version of our popular viability dye PMA (propidium monoazide). Like PMA, PMAxx™ is a photo-reactive dye that binds to dsDNA with high affinity. Upon photolysis with visible light, PMAxx™ dye becomes covalently attached to dsDNA. The PMAxx™-modified dsDNA cannot be amplified by PCR. PMAxx™ dye is designed to be cell membrane-impermeable. Thus, in a population of live and dead cells, only dead cells are susceptible to DNA modification due to compromised cell membranes. This unique feature makes PMAxx™ highly useful in selective detection of live bacteria by qPCR.
PMAxx™ was designed by Biotium scientists to be a superior alternative to PMA. While PMA is generally effective at differentiating between live and dead bacteria by qPCR, it does not completely eliminate PCR products from dead cell DNA. This could potentially give false positive results. Biotium’s new dye PMAxx™ is much more effective at eliminating PCR amplification of dead cell DNA, and therefore provides the best discrimination between live and dead bacteria.
Since Biotium first developed PMA dye, there have been numerous publications on the use of the dye in pathogenic bacterial detection related to food and water safety, medical diagnosis and biodefense. Check the Downloads section to view the PMA&PMaxx™ Reference List and the PMA&PMAxx™ Validated Bacterial Strains List. PMAxx™ should be compatible with all existing PMA protocols, but with superior activity. Of course we also still sell the classic PMA dye, in water (40019) or lyophilized format (40013).
PMAxx™ Molecular Information
- Abs = 466 nm (before photolysis)
- Abs/Em = ~510/~610 nm (following photolysis and covalent attachment to DNA/RNA)
- Dark red solution
- Store at -20°C and protect from light at all times
For photoactivation of PMAxx™ dye, we recommend our PMA-Lite™ LED Photolysis Device for microcentrifuge tubes, or the Glo-Plate Blue™ LED Illuminator for larger tubes or 96-well plates.
PMA Enhancer for Gram-Negative Bacteria
For viability PCR of gram-negative bacteria we highly recommend using PMA Enhancer (31038) in conjunction with PMA. PMA Enhancer for Gram Negative Bacteria was designed to improve PMA-mediated discrimination between live and dead gram-negative bacteria. When a sequence from a gram-negative bacteria is amplified by PCR, samples pre-treated with Enhancer show a decrease in the signal from dead cells, with no change in the signal from live cells.
Viability PCR Kits
To more easily get started with viability PCR, learn about our customizable Viability PCR Starter Kits. You choose which viability PCR dye you prefer, and whether or not you need Enhancer for gram-negative bacteria. All of the starter kits come with an EvaGreen® qPCR master mix and a detail protocol to get you started.
Biotium also provides strain-specific Real-Time PCR Bacterial Viability Kits with validated primers for selected pathogens: M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, MRSA, Salmonella, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, Legionella and Listeria. These kits provide everything that you need for the selective detection of your favorite species of live bacteria by real-time PCR.