A toxin isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides mushroom. It is a bicyclic peptide that binds specifically to F-actin. When conjugated to a fluorescent label, it will stain actin filaments in fixed and permeabilized cells.
- Choice of 17 bright & photostable CF® Dyes, biotin, or other common fluorophores
- Dye options for super-resolution and 2-photon imaging
- Excellent signal to background with negligible non-specific staining
Fluorescently-labeled phalloidins bind to F-actin with nanomolar affinity. Labeled phalloidins have similar affinity for both large and small filaments, binding in a stoichiometric ratio of about one phalloidin molecule per actin subunit in muscle and nonmuscle cells from various species of plants, animals and fungi. Different from antibodies, the binding affinity of phalloidin does not change significantly with actin among different species.
Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin is typically used to stain fixed and permeabilized cells. Labeled phalloidins are not cell-permeant and have therefore not been used extensively with living cells, however they can be loaded into live cells via cationic liposomes.
Note: Phalloidin stock solutions are very stable. But binding of fluorescent phalloidins to cells is more labile than other probes, such as antibodies, and staining can become non-specific or lost over time. For best results, store phalloidin-stained samples in a suitable mounting medium at 4°C, protected from light. For certain phalloidin conjugates, especially CF®405M, CF®647, and CF®680, we recommend imaging immediately or shortly after staining. Staining with our other CF® Dye phalloidins usually is stable for up to a week when specimens are stored at 4°C, protected from light.
Superior CF® Dyes
Biotium’s next-generation CF® Dyes were designed to be highly water-soluble with advantages in brightness and photostability compared to Alexa Fluor®, DyLight®, and other fluorescent dyes. Learn more about CF® Dyes.
Note: Conjugates of blue-fluorescent dyes like CF®350, CF®405S and CF®405M are not recommended for detecting low abundance targets and may be challenging to use in tissue specimens. Blue dyes have lower fluorescence and photostability, and cells and tissue have high autofluorescence in blue wavelengths, resulting in lower signal to noise compared to other colors.
CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended mainly for STORM applications. Certain CF® Dyes are compatible with various super resolution imaging techniques. The superior brightness, photostability, and photochemical switching properties of certain CF® Dyes are ideal for 3-D SIM, 3-D STORM, and other super-resolution and single-molecule imaging approaches. Learn more about CF® Dyes for super-resolution microscopy.
*CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended for STORM applications, but due to the instability of staining with these conjugates, we do not recommend using them for other microscopy applications. For other applications requiring far-red phalloidins, we recommend CF®633, CF®640R, or CF®680R phalloidins, which have more stable binding.
Note: CF®555 Phalloidin (00040, 00040-T) has been discontinued. We recommend CF®568 Phalloidin as a replacement for conventional microscopy, or CF®583R Phalloidin as a replacement for STORM.
CF is a registered trademark of Biotium, Inc. Alexa Fluor, Texas Red, and DyLight are registered trademarks of Thermo Fisher Scientific.