Phalloidin conjugates are actin filament stains for fixed and permeabilized cells. CF® dye phalloidin conjugates consist of the mushroom toxin phalloidin labeled with our superior bright and photostable CF® fluorescent dyes. Phalloidin is available with a choice of 16 bright & photostable CF® dyes, biotin and other common fluorophores (see table below).
Phalloidin is a toxin isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides mushroom. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidins bind to F-actin with nanomolar affinity. CF® dyes are a series of next-generation fluorescent dyes developed at Biotium to have combined advantages in brightness, photostability, and water solubility compared to other fluorescent dyes. Labeled phalloidins have similar affinity for both large and small filaments, binding in a stoichiometric ratio of about one phalloidin molecule per actin subunit in muscle and nonmuscle cells from various species of plants, animals and fungi. Different from antibodies, the binding affinity of phalloidin does not change significantly with actin among different species. Non-specific staining is negligible, with excellent signal to background.
Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin is typically used to stain fixed and permeabilized cells. Labeled phalloidins are not cell-permeant and have therefore has not been used extensively with living cells, however they can be loaded into live cells via cationic liposomes.
Note: Phalloidin stock solutions are very stable. But binding of fluorescent phalloidins to cells is more labile than other probes such as antibodies, and staining can become non-specific or lost over time. For best results, store phalloidin-stained samples in a suitable mounting medium at 4°C, protected from light. For certain phalloidin conjugates, especially CF®405M, CF®555, CF®647, and CF®680, we recommend imaging immediately or shortly after staining. CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended mainly for STORM applications. Staining with our other CF® dye phalloidins usually is stable for up to a week when specimens are stored at 4°C, protected from light.
Texas Red is a registered trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific.
*CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended for STORM applications. For other applications requiring far-red phalloidins, we recommend CF®633, CF®640R, or CF®680 phalloidins, which have more stable binding.
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Download a list of CF® dye references.