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Phalloidin Conjugates

Phalloidin conjugates are actin filament stains for fixed and permeabilized cells. CF® dye phalloidin conjugates consist of the mushroom toxin phalloidin labeled with our superior bright and photostable CF® fluorescent dyes.

Product Attributes

Cellular localization

Cytoskeleton, F-actin

For live or fixed cells

For fixed cells

Cell permeability

Membrane impermeant

Fixation options

Permeabilize before staining, Fix before staining (formaldehyde)

Toxin

Phalloidin

Colors

Blue, Green, Orange, Red, Far-red, Near-infrared

Conjugation
Size
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Product Description

Phalloidin conjugates are actin filament stains for fixed and permeabilized cells. CF® dye phalloidin conjugates consist of the mushroom toxin phalloidin labeled with our superior bright and photostable CF® fluorescent dyes. Phalloidin is available with a choice of 16 bright & photostable CF® dyes, biotin and other common fluorophores (see table below).

Phalloidin is a toxin isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides mushroom. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidins bind to F-actin with nanomolar affinity. CF® dyes are a series of next-generation fluorescent dyes developed at Biotium to have combined advantages in brightness, photostability, and water solubility compared to other fluorescent dyes. Labeled phalloidins have similar affinity for both large and small filaments, binding in a stoichiometric ratio of about one phalloidin molecule per actin subunit in muscle and nonmuscle cells from various species of plants, animals and fungi. Different from antibodies, the binding affinity of phalloidin does not change significantly with actin among different species. Non-specific staining is negligible, with excellent signal to background.

Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin is typically used to stain fixed and permeabilized cells. Labeled phalloidins are not cell-permeant and have therefore has not been used extensively with living cells, however they can be loaded into live cells via cationic liposomes.

Note: Phalloidin stock solutions are very stable. But binding of fluorescent phalloidins to cells is more labile than other probes such as antibodies, and staining can become non-specific or lost over time. For best results, store phalloidin-stained samples in a suitable mounting medium at 4°C, protected from light. For certain phalloidin conjugates, especially CF®405M, CF®555, CF®647, and CF®680, we recommend imaging immediately or shortly after staining. CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended mainly for STORM applications. Staining with our other CF® dye phalloidins usually is stable for up to a week when specimens are stored at 4°C, protected from light.

Texas Red is a registered trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific.

Ordering Information

ProductConjugationEx/EmSizeCatalog No.Purchase
Biotin-XX PhalloidinBiotin-XXN/A100 U00028Purchase 00028
CF®350 PhalloidinCF®350347/448 nm50 U00049-TPurchase 00049-T
300 U00049Purchase 00049
CF®405M PhalloidinCF®405M408/452 nm50 U00034-TPurchase 00034-T
300 U00034Purchase 00034
CF®430 PhalloidinCF®430426/498 nm50 U00054-TPurchase 00054-T
300 U00054Purchase 00054
CF®440 PhalloidinCF®440440/515 nm50 U00055-TPurchase 00055-T
300 U00055Purchase 00055
CF®488A PhalloidinCF®488A490/515 nm50 U00042-TPurchase 00042-T
300 U00042Purchase 00042
CF®532 PhalloidinCF®532527/558 nm50 U00051-TPurchase 00051-T
300 U00051Purchase 00051
CF®543 PhalloidinCF®543541/560 nm50 U00043-TPurchase 00043-T
300 U00043Purchase 00043
CF®555 PhalloidinCF®555555/565 nm50 U00040-TPurchase 00040-T
300 U00040Purchase 00040
CF®568 PhalloidinCF®568562/583 nm50 U00044-TPurchase 00044-T
300 U00044Purchase 00044
CF®594 PhalloidinCF®594593/614 nm50 U00045-TPurchase 00045-T
300 U00045Purchase 00045
CF®633 PhalloidinCF®633630/650 nm50 U00046-TPurchase 00046-T
300 U00046Purchase 00046
CF®640R PhalloidinCF®640R642/662 nm50 U00050-TPurchase 00050-T
300 U00050Purchase 00050
CF®647 Phalloidin*CF®647650/665 nm50 U00041-TPurchase 00041-T*
300 U00041Purchase 00041*
CF®660C PhalloidinCF®660C667/685 nm50 U00052-TPurchase 00052-T
300 U00052Purchase 00052
CF®660R PhalloidinCF®660R663/682 nm50 U00047-TPurchase 00047-T
300 U00047Purchase 00047
CF®680 Phalloidin*CF®680681/698 nm50 U00053-TPurchase 00053-T*
300 U00053Purchase 00053*
CF®680R PhalloidinCF®680R680/701 nm50 U00048-TPurchase 00048-T
300 U00048Purchase 00048
Fluorescein PhalloidinFluorescein496/516 nm300 U00030Purchase 00030
Rhodamine PhalloidinRhodamine540/565 nm300 U00027Purchase 00027
Rhodamine 110 PhalloidinRhodamine 110502/524 nm300 U00032Purchase 00032
Sulforhodamine 101 (Texas Red®) PhalloidinTexas Red®591/608 nm300 U00033Purchase 00033
*CF®647 and CF®680 phalloidins are recommended for STORM applications. For other applications requiring far-red phalloidins, we recommend CF®633, CF®640R, or CF®680 phalloidins, which have more stable binding.

References

1. Wieland, T. in Phallotoxins, Springer-Verlag, New York (1986).
2. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 9, 370 (1988).
3. Methods Enzymol 85, 514 (1982).
4. Eur J Biochem 165, 125 (1987).
5. Nature 326, 805 (1987).
6. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 6272 (1986).
7. Blood 69, 945 (1987).
8. Anal Biochem 200, 199 (1992).
9. J Cell Biol 105, 1473 (1987).
10. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77, 980 (1980).
11. Vaccine (2011), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.121
12. J Virol (2012) doi:10.1128/JVI.02470-12
13. Nature Protocols (2013). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nprot.2013.137
14. PLoS ONE(2013), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083802
15. Exp Cell Res (2011), doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.12.003
16. Cell Biology International (2012). doi:10.1042/CBI20120329
17. Nanomedicine (2013) 9(5):636-45. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2012.10.011
18. Mol Cell Biol 2013, 33(2):444. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01298-12
19. JARO (2013), doi: 10.1007/s10162-013-0425-9
20. Journal of Cell Science (2014), doi:10.1242/jcs.131946
21. J Biomed Mater Res A (2012) 11, 2921-8.
22. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. (2012) DOI 10.1007/s10237-012-0372-0
23. Cell Reports (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.040
24. Cell Communication and Signaling(2013),http://www.biosignaling.com/content/11/1/99

Cat#00034&00046
1. The Journal of Cell Biology (2017), doi: 10.1083/jcb.201704171

Download a list of CF® dye references.

 

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