This MAb is specific to SUMO-1 and shows no cross-reaction with either SUMO-2 or SUMO-3. The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins, which include SUMO-1, SUMO-2 and SUMO-3, belong to the ubiquitin-like protein family. Like ubiquitin, the SUMO proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo processing before conjugation to target proteins. Also, both utilize the E1, E2, and E3 cascade enzymes for conjugation. However, SUMO and ubiquitin differ with respect to targeting. Ubiquitination predominantly targets proteins for degradation, whereas sumoylation targets proteins to a variety of cellular processing, including nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and protein stability. The unconjugated SUMO-1 protein localizes to the nuclear membrane.