JC-1 (5,5′,6,6′-Tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine, iodide) is a mitochondrial dye that stains mitochondria in living cells in a membrane potential-dependent fashion. JC-1monomer is in equilibrium with so-called J-aggregates, which are favored at higher dye concentration or higher mitochondrial membrane potential. The monomer JC-1 has green fluorescence (λ Em = 527 nm), while the J-aggregates have red fluorescence (λ Em = 590 nm). Therefore, it is possible to use fluorescence ratioing technique to study mitochondrial membrane potentials. JC-1 is particularly useful for apoptosis studies. In apoptotic cells, the dye stays in the cytoplasm and fluoresces green. It has also been used in high throughput drug screening applications.
Biotium offers JC-1 as either iodide salt or chloride salt (#70011). Both forms have identical spectral properties. The iodide salt is the more commonly used form, however some researchers may prefer the chloride salt because chloride is the most prevalent anion in biological systems.
- ε (MeOH) = 190,000
- Red solid soluble in DMSO
- Store at 4°C and protect from light, especially in solution
- MW: 652
1. PNAS 88, 3671 (1991).
2. Biochemistry 30, 4480 (1991).