This MAb recognizes human 17-26kDa protein, which is identified as cytokine TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha). TNF-alpha can be expressed as a 17kDa free molecule, or as a 26kDa membrane protein. TNF-alpha is a protein secreted by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, and causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor bearing mice. TNF alpha is believed to mediate pathogenic shock and tissue injury associated with endotoxemia. TNF alpha exists as a multimer of two, three, or five non-covalently linked units, but shows a single 17kDa band following SDS PAGE under non-reducing conditions. TNF alpha is closely related to the 25kDa protein Tumor Necrosis Factor beta (lymphotoxin), sharing the same receptors and cellular actions. TNF alpha causes cytolysis of certain transformed cells, being synergistic with interferon gamma in its cytotoxicity. Although it has little effect on many cultured normal human cells, TNF alpha appears to be directly toxic to vascular endothelial cells. Other actions of TNF alpha include stimulating growth of human fibroblasts and other cell lines, activating polymorphonuclear neutrophils and osteoclasts, and induction of interleukin 1, prostaglandin E2 and collagenase production. TNF alpha is currently being evaluated in treatment of certain cancers and AIDS Related Complex.
Ahlstedt I, et al. Role of local cytokines in increased gastric expression of the secretory component in Helicobacter pylori infection. Infect Immun. 1999;67(9):4921-5. | Lindholm C, et al. Mucosal vaccination increases endothelial expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 in the human gastrointestinal tract. Infect Immun. 2004;72(2):1004-9. | Wahlstrm J, et al. Analysis of intracellular cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ lung and blood T cells in sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163(1):115-21. | Yan SR et al. Role of MyD88 in diminished tumor necrosis factor alpha production by newborn mononuclear cells in response to lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2004;72(3):1223-9. | Visser J et al. LPS-induced IL-10 production in whole blood cultures from chronic fatigue syndrome patients is increased but supersensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;119(2):343-9. | Cesaro-Tadic S et al. High-sensitivity miniaturized immunoassays for tumor necrosis factor alpha using microfluidic systems. Lab Chip. 2004;4(6):563-9
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