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DiO/DPA Membrane Potential Detection Kit

DiO/DPA is a highly sensitive FRET-based dye system that reports membrane potential change on submillisecond time scale.

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1 kit
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Supporting Documents

Product Description

DiO/DPA is a non-invasive optical membrane potential reporter system with low cytotoxicity, high speed, and high sensitivity.


  • Simple, non-invasive optical membrane potential monitoring
  • Rapid, large fluorescence voltage response on submillisecond time scale
  • Improved DiO formulation for better solubility

Kit Components

  • DiOC16(3) (DiO), 2 mM in DMSO, 1 mL
  • Dipicrylamine (DPA), 20 mM in DMSO, 1 mL

The DiO/DPA system detects cytoplasmic membrane potential changes using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The green fluorescent lipophilic dye DiO acts a stationary FRET donor in the plasma membrane. The anionic quencher DPA acts as a mobile FRET acceptor, rapidly partitioning in and out of the membrane in response to membrane potential, thus modulating DiO fluorescence. The DiO/DPA system has been reported to produce large fluorescence signal changes of >56% in HEK-293 cells and >25% in neuronal cultures and brain slices per 100 mV membrane potential change, and to report membrane potential in situ on submillisecond time scale (see Ref. 1).

The DiOC16(3) in this kit is an improved version over the DiOC16(3) from other suppliers; it is formulated with gluconate as the counter ion to increase dye solubility, for brighter and more uniform cell staining.

DPA is a hazardous material due to its explosive nature. To improve its safety during shipping and handling, it is provided as a dilute solution in the kit. We also offer DPA solid (catalog no. 60037).


1. J Neurosci (2009) 29(29), 9197. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1240-09.2009
2. Brit J Pharmacol (2011) 164, 667–680. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01396.x


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