For CF® dye, cyanine dye, FITC, biotin, DNP, and dig kits, see the Mix-n-Stain™ Kit Compatibility and Protocol Selection Flowchart, below. We also recommend downloading the updated Product Protocol and completing the pre-labeling checklist to find the right protocol and kit size to use for each antibody you wish to label. Learn more about CF® dyes on our CF® Dye Technology Page, or download the CF® Dye Brochure.
CF® dyes are highly water soluble, small organic dyes designed by scientists at Biotium for labeling proteins and nucleic acids. With a series of over 20 colors (and growing), many of our CF® dyes are brighter and more photostable than competing dyes. For more information please see the product flyers for individual CF® dyes, the CF® Dye Selection Guide, and our CF® Dye FAQs.
The exact chemical structures of CF® dyes are currently confidential but will be fully disclosed at a later stage when pending patents become granted. In general terms, the structure of a CF® dye may be divided into two parts: a) dye core structure (i.e. the aromatic ring skeleton that defines the dye’s color or absorption/emission wavelengths), and b) core structure-modifying elements. At present, CF® dyes bear the core structures of coumarin, pyrene, rhodamine or cyanine dyes. Blue fluorescent CF® dyes are based on coumarin or pyrene dye core structure, while green to near-IR CF® dyes are based on either cyanine or rhodamine dye core structures. Core structure-modifying elements refer to various chemical attachments to the core structure and are a key aspect of the CF® dye invention that makes CF® dyes superior to other commercial dyes.
Most CF® dyes carry 1-2 negative charges while a few cyanine-based near-IR CF® dyes carry 3-4 negative charges. However, the more negatively charged CF® dyes comprise unique structural features that shield the negative charges such that the biomolecules (such as antibodies) the dyes label do not lose specificity due to the excessive negative charges.
CF® initially was an abbreviation for Cyanine-based Fluorescent dyes. These were the first patented CF® dyes based on cyanine dye structures. Since then, our CF® dye patent portfolio has expanded to include four different fluorescent dye core structures that cover the fluorescence spectrum from UV to NIR.
Mix-n-Stain™ CF® Dye Antibody Labeling Kits allow you to label ≤5 ug up to 100 ug of your antibody in just 30 minutes, with minimal hands-on time and no purification.
Label 5-20 ug, 20-50 ug, or 50-100 ug Ab
Choice of 29 CF® Dye colors
Less than 30 seconds of hands-on time
30 minutes total reaction time
No purification, 100% recovery
Compatible with BSA, gelatin, ascites
Ultrafiltration spin vial (for antibody concentration or buffer exchange, if needed)
10X Mix-n-Stain™ Reaction Buffer
Lyophilized Reactive CF® Dye
Mix-n-Stain™ Storage Buffer
Mix-n-Stain™ labeling tolerates common antibody buffer formulations. An ultrafiltration centrifuge vial is provided to quickly remove interfering substances like glycerol, or to concentrate your antibody. With a slight modification in protocol, antibodies can be labeled in the presence of BSA, gelatin, or ascites fluid. Because CF® dyes are highly water soluble, the presence of other proteins like BSA or gelatin in the labeling reaction has minimal effect on background fluorescence, because any labeled non-antibody proteins readily wash away during immunofluorescence staining.
Superior CF® Dyes
These kits feature a choice of 29 of Biotium’s next-generation CF® dyes, which were designed for advantages in brightness and photostability compared to Alexa Fluor®, DyLight®, and other fluorescent dyes. Learn more about CF® Dyes.
Choose the Right Labeling Kit for Your Antibody
Mix-n-Stain™ Antibody Labeling Kits are very simple to use (see the workflow overview above). But before you begin, you must check that your antibody meets the compatibility requirements for labeling, and choose the right labeling protocol. Download the updated and expanded Product Protocol for a labeling check list to help you select the right kit size and labeling protocol for your antibody. Also see our Kit Compatibility and Protocol Selection Flowchart.
See the product table below for a quick reference of the maximum excitation and emission of each CF® dye, or see our CF® Dye Brochure for more detailed dye information.